Originally posted on Idera – http://sqlserverperformance.idera.com/tsql-optimization/understanding-sql-server-statistics/
“Statistics provides tools that you need in order to react intelligently to information you hear or read” – David Lane, 2003
If there’s an upcoming election and you are running for office and getting ready to go from town to town city to city with your flyers, you will want to know approximately how many flyers you’re going to bring.
If you’re the coach of a sports team, you will want to know your players’ stats before you decide who to play when, and against who. You will often play a matchup game, even if you have 20 players, you might be allowed to play just 5 at a time, and you will want to know which of your players will best match up to the other team’s roster. And you don’t want to interview them one by one at game time (table scan), you want to know, based on their statistics, who your best bets are.
Just like the election candidate or the sports coach, SQL Server tries to use statistics to “react intelligently” in its query optimization. Knowing number of records, density of pages, histogram, or available indexes help the SQL Server optimizer “guess” more accurately how it can best retrieve data. A common misnomer is that if you have indexes, SQL Server will use those indexes to retrieve records in your query. Not necessarily. If you create, let’s say, an index to a column City and <90% of the values are ‘Vancouver’, SQL Server will most likely opt for a table scan instead of using the index if it knows these stats.